Organizational Behaviour

In every company, there are 3 significant resources to be managed if the organization wants to accomplish its goals and objectives. These resources are Humans, materials and funds. And out of these 3, personnel management is the most challenging and important to handle. The reason being that every human is born distinct and therefore is bound to have various attributes– that is, the ways they believe feel factor and act. Secondly, human beings control and coordinate the other resources. They make up the workforce of an organization and are described as personnel. Given that humanity plays a very bulk in the overall success of a company, it is therefore important to have an effective working relationship between the employee and the manager as this is essential for the success of the organization.

Human Resource Management, which includes the effective and effective management within an organization, is among the essential functions of Educational Administrators. This is because every administrator has a function to perform through his staff and his own capabilities. Every university like other official organizations needs human beings to perform its programs and achieve educational goals and objectives. To be able to accomplish this, the Registrar who is the ‘chief of administration’ needs to ensure that personnel with whom he works knows exactly what to do, when to do it and the best ways to do it. Another name for personnel management is personnel management. No matter the name we chose to call it, its standard function is to handle people who make up a company. And these people have varied interest, values and goals.

So, what does that mean?

Akpakwu (2003), concerns personnel management as the proper utilization of the people in an organization towards accomplishing their needs and organizational goals. To this extent, it includes comprehending the nature of people in a company, their needs and goal and progressing the needed methods to accomplish these goals and needs. It likewise includes recognizing the objectives of the company and producing a conducive environment towards leading staff to achieving the goals of the company. Armstrong in Akpakwu (2003), sees personnel management as the process of acquiring, arranging and motivating the human resources required in by an organization. He advocated for the production of a very conducive and cordial environment in order to satisfy the needs of the workers and achieve organizational goals. Denga (1990), on the other hand, concerns Human management as a workout in human engineering. People require, problems, sensations character etc which they come along with to these institutions. What ever name it is called, personnel management is the responsibility of all those who manage people. The administrative manager has to for that reason discover ways of satisfying these needs in such a method that the society, organization and individual’s objectives are accomplished.

Continuing On With Organizational Behaviour

The act of getting people together to achieve organizational goals and objectives effectively and successfully in an organization is the responsibility of the management. Management consists of planning, organizing, staffing, directing or leading and managing the efforts of individuals to accomplish the goals. A great manager discovers the five standard functions of management.

Assisting in creating a workplace that contributes for his members of staff so about promote optimum contentment thus inspiring them.

Guaranteeing that the abilities and abilities of the labor force are utilized to the optimum in pursuance of the university’s mission and required.

Ensuring a fair balance in between the individual needs of staff and the needs of the Registry and the university in general.

Employment and Selection:- This involves searching for an appropriate individual to fill the uninhabited position. In the registry department, the least qualification for an administrative secretary is a bachelor’s degree. The fundamental objective of staffing is to find qualified applicant who will certainly stick with the organization.

Training and Education:- This involves establishing staff to professional growth. In the Registry department, training includes induction of new staff members, formal training of staff which may include on the job training.

Salaries and wage Administration:- This refers to the monetary advantages that are offered to staff for the jobs they have performed. In the university administration, fixing of wages is a continuous workout as position and posts keep changing due to growth and practical development.

Staff Appraisals:- This is the constant process of feed back to subordinates about how well they have actually carried out on their jobs. In the registry department, members of staff are formally evaluated yearly by their immediate supervisors and the examination ratified by the Appointments and promotions committee.

Welfare:- In University administration, the main function of welfare is to provide help to members of staff and also motivate a positive relationship between staff and the university by providing additional security comforts.

Trade Union Relations: – According to Akpakwu (2003), trade unions are ‘sounding boards’ for policies and decisions affecting staff. In university administration, joint committees comprising management group and trade unions have actually shown to be effective in dealing with conflicts. Trade Unions champion the problems and grievances of their members with the view of enhancing the welfare of their members.

The functions of chief administrative officer in the university are numerous. Normally however, he is to prepare, arrange, collaborate, direct and report activities in relation to staff under him.

Due to the fact that it allows them to please at least some of their individual needs, all organizations including educational organizations are made up of people who selected to work in it mainly. Essentially everyone works, plays or is educated in an organization. Try have to be made to define exactly what a company is. Ede (2000), defines organization as a system of purposely collaborated activities which are deliberately structured for the purpose of recognizing specific goals. Dale (1978), views company hence: ‘Whenever numerous people are interacting for a typical end, there should be some type of company: that is the task should be divided among them and the work of the group must be coordinated. Dividing the work and arranging for coordination comprise the process of company and when that is completed, the group might be described as an organization.’.

According to Unachukwu (1997), the more complex a company is, the harder it is to collaborate activities, forecast phenomena or occasions and attain set objectives maximally. We can therefore see organizational behaviour as the organized study of the nature of organizations; how they start, how they establish and their results on individual members. It is also a systematic attempt to comprehend the behaviour of people in an organization; not just human behaviour however structural behaviour, aspects behaviour, systems behaviour as well as policy behaviour. Therefore for staff in the registry department of the university to function efficiently and successfully, the Registrar needs to comprehend the nature of people he is working with and be able to interpret their behaviours. Organizational behaviour follows the principle of human behaviour: People in an organization are regulated by the very same mental mechanisms both on the job and outside the job. Organizational behaviour is human behaviour in a certain setting. The behaviour of an individual in a company is identified to some extent by external and internal factors. These consist of learning ability, motivation, perception, attitude, emotions, aggravation and so on while the external factors include stress, reward system, degree of trust, group cohesiveness, social factors, workplace policies etc. Organizational behaviour can likewise be situational. An individual’s behaviour can not be disassociated from the scenario he finds himself. For instance, an usually calm individual is injected consistent close physical aggressiveness with some other people. The behaviour of that individual is therefore a function of interaction between his attributes and other environmental variables. Organizations are viewed as intricate systems consisting of interrelated subsistence. Changes or modification in any part of the system have consequences on other part of the system. Adjustment in the system causes preferred positive changes called functions. Negative consequences in response to modification or change in the system are called dysfunction. The behaviour of an individual is borne out of the choices that have been taken in a company.

Organizations represent continuous interaction in between structure and process. To obtain a task accomplished in an organization, we have to define who does exactly what. Structures refer to organizational shapes, meanings and guidelines. It is exactly what binds an organization together. Process is the sequence of activity in the system. Choice Making, Communication, Leadership and Conflict are couple of examples of the lots of procedures that happen within a company. Ocho (1997), aptly recommends that humans in an organization have to be constantly encouraged for adequate production and dedication. Subsequently, the main responsibility of the Registrar is to ensure that human resources are made use of and managed efficiently and effectively to meet the university goals.

Good human relations in a company, for it to function effectively and efficiently can not be over-emphasized. It offers knowledge on how people connect and react in various organizational circumstances in an effort to please their needs and at the same time satisfy organizational goals. The chief administrator’s ability to understand his staff and their problems, and his belief in and the practice of democratic leadership will go a long method making him succeed in his administrative and supervisory task. The effective operation of any organization depends upon the Human Resources because organization. Unachukwu (1997), implicitly mentions that Educational Administration is concerned with the mobilization of the efforts of people for the achievement of educational objectives. It is therefore vital that the Registrar cultivates the practices of Human Relations in his unpleasant administrative task. Edem (1987), observed that the distinction in between the concepts of the Efficiency movement and those of the Human Relations movement was that of the former highlighting getting most from the worker, even to the extent of needing him to subordinate his interest and needs of those in the organization, while the latter emphasized the humanitarian aspects which sought to please the needs of the worker, lessen his frustrations and enhance the level of job satisfaction.

According to Mary Follet,(1964), a popular leader of the Human Relations movement in the National Society For The Study of Education, she mentioned that the actual service for company men is no t simply the production and distribution of manufactured short articles, but to provide an opportunity for individual advancement and self-actualization through better organization of human relationships. The process of production is as important for the welfare of society as the product of production. Follet views administration as a shared responsibility, asserting that organizational structures should allow a free interplay of ideas in order to minimize the rigidity of hierarchical structures; however warned that shared responsibility ought to not be construed as being associated with laissez-faire and absence of focal points of reference.

Without human resource, there can be no company. These human resources remain in 2 classifications: Management and Subordinates.

These 3 premises assist a lot in understanding the behaviour of workers in a company. When Adam Smith conceptualized the financial basis of human motivation, it was his opinion that people work mainly for money and are unconcerned about social sensations, and are inspired to do only that which provides them with them with the greatest reward. This approach has actually been criticized because its view of man is dehumanizing. Money might not be the only primary source of rewarding behaviour in an organization as there is limit to which money can be used in inspiring workers. According to Argyle (1972), People can become committed to the goals of the organization as a result of participating in choice making in their work location or co-partnership schemes or through their relationships with groups or supervisors. Commitment could also come through the job itself. For instance through ones accomplishments, acknowledgment, responsibility and expert growth. All these are motivators that would energize human resources to fulfill organizational goals and objectives. The ability of the educational manager to for that reason prepare and arrange personnels efficiently, inspire and manage the staff is essential to the reliable and effective management of the university. This is because great personnel management practice not just assists in drawing in and retaining the best of staff, but likewise inspiring them to exceptional work efficiency. Absence of motivation in work scenarios has serious effect on job satisfaction when job satisfaction is missing, the worker may quickly leave the organization. Saiyadanin (1999), supporting states that advancement or changing one’s status shows when this growth is not experienced, the staff member becomes disappointed and disappointed.

An effective company will certainly planning to it that there is a terrific degree of cooperation, communication, dedication, job satisfaction and motivation levels amongst its staff who will certainly feel more incentivized towards their work obligations and achieving overall organizational goals.

Motivation is a psychological behavior which has been described by Luthan (1998) as, ‘a process that starts with a physiological shortage or require that turns on a behavior or a drive that is focuseded on an objective reward.’ Commitment has actually been explained by Northcraft and Neale (1996) as being a mindset of people through which they express their commitment to the organization and also their issue for the organizational success. Interaction has actually been viewed as an activity of communicating details among two or more people. Effective communication takes place when exactly what is in the mind of the sender is correctly understood and acted on by the receiver. These 3 locations of human habits, motivation, dedication and interaction are integral for organizational success and standing out organizational performance.

There have actually been numerous researches performed to see the interrelations in between the three components of human behavior discussed above. There is a lot of work done on the relationship between organizational dedication and motivation levels. As per a research by John P. Meyer, commitment has been viewed as a driving force for high motivation levels. Motivation levels will immediately rise which will lead to a general increase in organizational efficiency if employees are committed towards their job and their workplaces. This connection has actually been supported by the Self-Determination Theory (SDT) by Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan who initially proposed that there is a natural and intrinsic tendency of human beings to behave in a specific healthy or effective method. When organizational commitment will be established, people will certainly have a natural tendency to be encouraged in the best instructions and use up their job tasks with more interest, enthusiasm and loyalty.

Adeyinka Tella in her research study ‘Work Motivation, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment of Library Personnel in Academic and Research Libraries in Oyo State, Nigeria’ researches the impact of motivation and dedication on Library personnel. She came across some intriguing findings after questioning 200 library personnel in 4 Academic and 5 Research libraries in Nigeria. The research studies revealed that there is a connection in between job dedication, motivation and satisfaction although the relationship between dedication and motivation is unfavorable. On one hand her study reaffirmed numerous previous research studies such as that motivation enhances job satisfaction and job performance (Brown and Shepherd, 1997). Even the part on negative relationship in between organizational dedication and motivation was visualized by Brown and Shepherd as it was seen that the librarians had their own deeply rooted shared values and belief structures that they were not going to keep aside and follow the organizational vision, which thus decreased their motivation levels. A second research conclusion was that there was no significant difference between the viewed motivation of non-professional and expert curators. It was found that both groups are most incentivized by financial advantages (Colvin, 1998) and if they are offered with the same degree of workplace and work rewards that they should have, motivation levels will not have the tendency to differ. Another important finding was that as years of experience boost and librarians stick to the very same organization for a long period of time, commitment levels tend to stagnate instead of boost after a particular duration. This is inconsistent to a study by Coleman, and Meyer (1994) who said that dedication levels go greater and greater as a worker’s tenure with the organization boosts. However, the one significant factor that all this study satisfies is that job satisfaction, organizational commitment and motivation all cause higher and improved organizational performance at work.

The relation between motivation and interaction can not likewise be weakened. As per a dairy products manufacturer and personnel manager Liz Doornink, who owns and operates Human Resource Services, Baldwin, Wis, workers are the important force in the dairy products farms and all efforts has to be made to keep them motivated and delighted. At Monsanto Dairy Business One-Step Ahead National Dairy Women’s Conference, he suggested that manufacturers at each farm spend some quality time with their farmers and hold gatherings such as bbq celebrations to identify exactly what exists precisely that motivates workers then those elements should then be utilized as tools to incentivize them. He says that employees’ marital or age factors should likewise be looked at prior to choosing the best ways to inspire staff as people at different ages and status might tend to be encouraged in a various way. Likewise, communication methods will tend to vary for each of these different sets of individuals. He likewise pointed out that with time, motivational factors might alter and the business might be presented with more recent challenges. E.g. if an existing young student-employee dairy products farmer has actually now obtained a degree or extra experience, newer inspirational tools will certainly have to be discussed to inspire him additionally to continue to be with business or to enhance his performance if in case his performance stagnates or levels off at a point. He went ahead to say that organizational goals need to be set in coordination with all employees after interacting with them to find out precisely what is in the minds of people and what is achievable by them. Simply dictating goals and expecting for them to be attained is not it. Goals need to be set with individuals and if employees meet them, they must be rewarded so that they are encouraged even further.

From the example of Doomick, we gather that motivation and interaction go hand in hand. Communication with employees is required to learn where the employees stand at the minute, exactly what is their present state, are they satisfied with their tasks or are they lacking in their motivational levels. Talking with them will explain to the company the ways the workers can be motivated or which tools are most proper. Remaining in constant touch with the goals and needs of employees is in itself a motivating aspect. For effective interaction and thus greater degrees of motivation, it is very important that organizations acknowledge both spoken and non-verbal means of communication from workers. Management has to be sincere and reasonable with staff members without being biased to anyone. They need to not utilize their power or position to take control of the entire discussion however instead have an inviting feel to themselves which makes them quickly approachable. These members need to be great listeners in addition to fantastic orators and speakers. They have to be able to communicate well with workers at all levels and positions according to the situation and the individual in front. If communication is well created, motivation levels for the worker will certainly increase.

Organizational interaction is seen to be the heart of organizational performance. Communication is the essential to which the other two elements of motivation and dedication can be accomplished effectively. Staff members have to be offered the assurance that there are people who want to listen o them, assist them and that they are actually being valued. CMPQ (Commitment, Motivation & & Performance Questionnaire) is recognition of the value of motivation and dedication to improving organizational efficiency and is an excellent tool to identify how employees view their relationship with their superiors and the degree to which their goals and needs are being met. As seen previously, commitment has a terrific impact on motivation. Both dedication and motivation can affect one another. It is how the company forms its right tools and identifies the lacking points in workers which have to be worked on. If the certain aspects in between employer/employee relationships are addressed, staff member engagement, dedication and motivation will all be impacted positively which in turn will certainly cause the general improvement in organizational efficiency.

Ede.S. A. (2000) Educational administration and management, Jos, Nigeria: Ichedum Publication Nigeria, Ibadan, Nigeria, Spectrum Books Ltd

Edem D.A. (1987), Introduction to Educational Administration in Nigeria. Ibadan, Spectra Books restricted.

National Society for the Study of Education. (1964), Behavioral Science and Educational Administration, The Sixty-third yearbook, part 2 (University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Okonkwo S.N. (1992), An analysis of picked factors in Relation to Academic Staff Utilization: A study of Anambra state colleges of education. An unpublished Ph.D Thesis, University of Benin, Benin City.

Okonkwo S.N.(1997), Job satisfaction and the Work Behaviour of Nigerian Teachers, Akwa Meks Publishers.

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